Publications

New Documentation of Use Cases for Interoperable Fare Management System data exchanges has been released

Interoperable Fare Management Systems (IFMS) are becoming more and more interconnected. This need for connections between IFMS comes from different factors:

  • Ticketing interoperability areas are expanding and operational data exchanges between ticketing systems are required for revenue sharing or traffic planning purposes,
  • Account Based Ticketing (ABT) is developing and creates the need for back office data exchanges as the proof of entitlement to travel is held in the IFMS back office, and not in the media,
  • The increasing economic pressure on local authorities is encouraging them to build ticketing revenue sharing models based on actual passenger journeys rather than on predefined pro-rata calculations, and this mandates the need for sharing operational usage data.

Many initiatives defining specifications for IFMS data exchanges do exist but most of them are at best implemented at a regional or domestic level. Anticipating that data exchanges between IFMS will only increase in the future, the Smart Ticketing Alliance has resolved to describe the list of use cases that PT stakeholders want to see addressed through IFMS data exchanges.

The documentation of such use cases is seen as a necessary prerequisite to the later development of a EU wide specification for an IFMS Back Office interface that should help to seamlessly interconnect ticketing systems and hence favour the development of ticketing interoperability on a broader EU scale.

This document aims to identify the business processes and related use cases that IFMS data exchange should cover. Beyond the business and functional requirements, the regulatory and legal aspect of data exchanges are also taken into account to cope with regards to user data privacy, responsibility of data storage, ownership of the exchanged data ….

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New Device Certification Release and Related White Paper Support Pathway to Public Transport Interoperability

A decade ago, Public Transport smartcard schemes each had their own unique specifications and a smartcard issued by one scheme could not work in other locations. The European Commission funded EU-IFM Project and now the Smart Ticketing Alliance have worked to define the business rules and requirements to allow smart ticketing schemes to interoperate and the customer to be able to use just one device to travel across schemes and borders.

The Smart Ticketing Alliance, with support from colleagues in the Americas and the Far East, have worked with the NFC Forum and the GSMA to ensure the specific requirements of public transport smartcard schemes are reflected in the latest NFC and mobile handset specifications.  The STA is proud of its formal liaison with the NFC Forum and GSMA, and to see it come to fruition in the White Paper and latest press release from the NFC Forum.

STA mobile use cases

The increasing use of smart phones and the transformation from classical to mobile service offers is one of the major global trends.

Compared to other sectors that have to build up mobile infrastructures from scratch, the Public Transport industry is in a unique position because current contactless eTicketing infrastructures are in principle compatible with NFC-enabled mobile devices. It is now possible to introduce mobile services based on these existing infrastructures.

This document supports the implementation of certified technical interoperability between NFC enabled mobile devices and Public Transport systems. This is achieved by documenting the way that NFC Mobile Devices are used in Public Transport and by identifying the relevant requirements on this basis.

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Consensus Policy Statement

  1. Public Transport, through the Smart Ticketing Alliance, is committed to using ISO/IEC 14443 (2005 version for ID1 smartcards and current version for other media) for interoperable schemes.
  2. The Smart Ticketing Alliance wishes to set up a certification scheme(s) for Public Transport devices to ISO/IEC 14443 (readers and media) to show interoperability.
  3. Public Transport is willing to consider other devices and certification schemes that are compliant with (1) above.
  4. Public Transport recognises it specifies and certifies Public Transport devices to ISO/IEC 14443 (readers and media); it recognises NFC Forum specifies and certifies mobile devices for the consumer market.
  5. Public Transport wishes to have compatibility with other devices (such as those using NFC Forum) but Public Transport is not willing to change its existing infrastructure of readers. This objective can be met if an NFC Forum device interoperates with a reader to CEN TS16794 Part 1.
  6. Public Transport is willing to use NFC Forum devices as readers if they are compatible with media to CEN TS16794 Part 1.
  7. An alliance has been initiated between the Smart Ticketing Alliance, the GSMA, the NFC Forum and CEN TC278 WG3 to bring about harmonization of our specifications with regard to NFC technology for the public transport industry.
  8. We welcome wider public transport industry participation in this effort through the Smart Ticketing Alliance.

Smart Ticketing Alliance
Brussels
V3 March 2015

Smart Ticketing

Smart Ticketing – A new Alliance to break through interoperability barriers
John Verity, Chief Advisor, ITSO Limited, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom

[an edited transcription by Johan van Ieperen – previously published on myUITP]

The Smart Ticketing Alliance represents a platform for cooperation and a coordinated approach for establishing ticketing interoperability for the Public Transport sector. It is an initiative by Calypso Networks Association, AFIMB (France), ITSO (UK), VDV (Germany) and UITP.

Smarter Travel

Smarter Travel is about joining up the different elements of a journey the passenger wants to make. We start with giving the customer the information necessary to plan the itinerary from one door to another door. Their journey goes from A to B and may cover many different modes of travel: on foot, bicycle, taxi, bus, tram metro, local, regional, national and international trains and even air travel. We are already well on our way on sharing the level of information necessary for our customers to plan that entire journey (e.g. through Open Data, using third party developers creating Journey Planner Applications).

The Smart Ticketing Alliance (STA) works from the other extreme: providing the permission to undertake that journey (booking the travel entitlements: the tickets)! Interoperable ticketing requires working towards specifications to put all those permissions inside and alongside in an electronic wallet.

It does not matter whether that wallet contains real tickets or just a token which refers to a back office where the data necessary to identify you during that journey. Furthermore, it can be pay-to-go, or a post paid system. In fact, it can be free of charge (i.e. concessionary fares – even if you do not have to pay a cent, you still have to be able to prove that you can travel for free).

When travel information and ticketing come together, the circle can be closed. We can actually start to redefine the journey based on real time information when there are disruptions in the services. The customer could receive a new itinerary and new permissions to travel using available alternatives.

Challenges

Smart Travel is about seamless mobility – to take away barriers even if that leg of the trip does not cost anything, like for walking. It has to cover all the elements (connections, itinerary, ticketing, and payment) from door to door, the last mile, for all modes, and across all borders.

Not one size fits all – we have to recognise this as a fact: there needs to be a balance between subsidiarity and interoperability. We are not going to provide one ticket that covers the entire journey. We will have to accept local solutions which are only applicable in that certain area. This requires a bottom-up approach (not top-down).

Taking the United Kingdom as an example where there is true interoperability on the rail network: with s about 2.800 stations, in theory, the matrix counts 2.800 x 2.800 travel possibilities. But when including the different fares, the matrix counts over 300 million cells! If the UK system is to be expanded to a European wide system including all transport modes then clearly that is moving many steps too far.

Moreover, we need to have an Open Architecture and Specifications for the way in which we will hold those permissions to travel. We already have Open Data in terms of Journey Planning (time tables, stop / station / facility locations, are they accessible, lifts and escalator status, etc) but we also have to look at ticketing in this way. Here we also have inter-/multi-/co-modal, cross-border, multi operated journeys, and all of those tickets can reside in that same single wallet which the customer then feels covers the whole of their journey unlike the situation today, scrabbling in their pockets for a collection of different sized tickets, some smart, some paper, some A4 sized or little bits of paper that get lost easily in the folds of your physical wallet. We have to be open and have a single specification for all of that

Smart Ticketing

In addition to the above, smart ticketing will have to include: Point-to-Point Tickets; period passes; concessionary travel; pay-on-entry and pay-as-you-go; and complex specialised ticketing requirements (e.g. Apex, reservations, venue entry). The Smart Ticketing Alliance is looking at the specifications and underlying requirements that are there in order to encourage integrated travel.

Interoperability

The results from the EU IFM project (Interoperable Fare Management) nearly 4 years ago found that Public Transport needs interoperability at three levels: Local Schemes (to move within a city, within a region); National Schemes (within a state or a country); and International Schemes (especially where there is the employment, recreational or other reasons for cross-border travel between countries).

We are not talking about having to use the same tickets everywhere to cover all and the whole of such journeys, but there needs to be the interoperability of the single tickets so they can all be held in the same place. To avoid any misunderstanding: the type or price of the interoperable tickets is not subject to standardisation – only the way we handle them!

The EU IFM project has now moved forward into the Smart Ticketing Alliance.

Deliverables

The Alliance is going to provide a number of smart ticketing deliverables required for the wider smarter travel environment:

  • Seamless integration between journey planning, retailing, ticketing and real-time information using the traveller’s preferred media (e.g. a bank card or their mobile phone). The standards and specifications must be open enough to cover all of those media’s requirements.
  • We must be able to link-in to a One Stop smart access to public transport (e.g. a web portal) which in turn is linked with wider entitlements  (e.g. concessionary travel, integrated Student Cards, social entitlement) or Event Management – a greater need for wider integration is ahead.
  • Where payment does take place, it has to co-reside in a comparable parallel way. Only about 30% of the journeys across Europe actually involve payment at the point of taking that journey!

In the UK, students are beginning to drive the developments in public transport. Recent statistics show, that for the first time ever, the young age group up to the age of 25, now exceeds the over 60 group of being the major user of buses. Traditionally it was always the older you got the more you use the bus, now it is switching the other way around!

STA Goals

  • Cooperation between national and regional Smart Ticketing schemes to establish interoperable Smart Ticketing in Europe and elsewhere.
  • Develop, agree and publish the functional and technical requirements for smart ticketing interoperability
  • Cooperation for the establishment of Trust Schemes, Specifications and Certification
  • Cooperation with other European and International Bodies to promote interoperability in Smart Ticketing

Increasingly the customer will bring his own smart medium (e.g. thier mobile phone or tablet). We need to be able to trust those media. At the same time, the customers are only going to use smart cards if they trust them to hold their tickets securely, particularly when they have a high value – some annual UK rail tickets can cost in excess of 20.000 Euros. This is even a challenge for mobile network operators who tend to think in phone calls costing in the area of Euros or even tens of Euros but not thousends of Euros.

The STA works closely together with CEN (European standardisation body), GSMA (the association of all mobile network operators), the NFC Forum (Handset manufacturers), UIC and Unife (rail sector), etc.

Opportunities

Open Standards, Specifications and Certification offer the public transport sector a unique opportunity:

  • Create ticketing interoperability between schemes
  • Co-exist with other Applications
  • Use 3rd party media (e.g. mobile phones)
  • Access to Best Practice (sharing findings and innovation)
  • Benefit from scale economics in product development,  procurement and speed of implementation
  • Provide a Trusted Service based on Minimum Specifications, Open Standards and Composite Certification

Opportunities for Smart Ticketing in the wider environment:

  • Door-to-door travel integration – seamless integration between Journey Planning, Retailing, Ticketing and Real Time Information
  • Full integration between bus and rail: making multi-modal / multi-operator really happen
  • One smart access to Public Transport and wider Entitlements  (e.g. concessionary travel, integrated Student Cards, social entitlement) – Venue and Event integration with Public Transport
  • Enhanced Modal Switching as part of a wider greening of  transport – Integration with Car and Bike hire schemes
  • One-stop opportunities with NFC-enabled Mobile Phones – linking to the retail business

john.verity@itso.org.uk – www.itso.org.uk – +44 1908 255 455 – www.smart-ticketing.org

IFM Project Introduction

ec-ifm-fw7-project

Funded by the European Commission under the 7th Community Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development.

The project is funded by DG INFSO under the IST Programme: ICT for Transport.

links back to the different parts of the IFM-Project:

  • introduction (this)
  • vision, drivers and aims
  • work packages
  • conclusions
  • deliverables

IFM Project vision, drivers, aims

Drivers towards Public Transport:

  • Social inclusion
  • Mobility
  • Harmonisation
  • Procurement
  • Scale economics
  • support for the Green Agenda by removing barriers to modal switching

EU-IFM needs to support interoperability at three levels:

  • Local Schemes
  • National Schemes
  • International Schemes

The main National IFM organisations have a shared vision:

  • Create an EU-IFM network to provide direction, co-ordination, networking of Best Practice,
  • Implementation planning of a pan-European IFM initiative
  • Promote the use of multi-application smart media including NFC; and the Security and Certification of devices
  • Payment mechanism no longer a barrier to travel Initial funding from European Commission

Aim is to ensure cross-border interoperability of Transport Smartcards is enabled across Europe by developing a Road Map towards a Europe-wide concept where:

  • Customers use their chosen smart media (such as NFC smartphone) outside their home network
  • Transport authorities have the tool-set to build new systems using standardised Specifications
  • Deliver the associated Security Environment
  • Charter a way through Privacy Issues

European IFM Deliverables

  • Common Model for IFM across EU
  • Open architecture
  • Commercial framework between members
  • Security Environment with a Trust Model and set of IFM Rules
  • Privacy Charter

Any national IFM compliant media (contactless smart card or other) can be used in any participating sales location to “load” products available from that sales location, for use in the product’s (product owner’s) acceptance network.

  • Transparency for the user
  • Users can use their “media” anywhere in the environment

IFM Project Work Packages

  1. Trust Management
  2. Privacy
  3. Applications and Interoperable Media
  4. IFM Organisational Structures
  5. Back Office Systems