IFM Project conclusions

IMG_8125-100hRoutes to European IFM Interoperability

  • Track 1 (Priority Lane) Interoperability through common multi-application processes and a Common Portal
  • Track 2 (Long Haul) Common EU-IFM Application and Templates

EU-IFM Priority Lane Deliverables

  • Greater Awareness of benefits of smartcard solutions for mobility to both Customers and Transport Operators
  • Widest possible range of Media leading to cost benefits
  • Access over-the-internet and over-the-air
  • Transportability and Interoperability of Media between schemes
  • Respect of Privacy across schemes
  • Enhancement of Security and minimisation of Fraud
  • Consensus on value of cooperation
  • Dissemination of knowledge of how to set up a scheme
  • Promotion of Best Practice to spread excellence
  • Facilitation of Back Office communication … demonstrating material benefits to Customer, the Green Agenda, Mobility and Social Inclusion

EU-IFM Long Haul Vision

  • Seamless accessibility to different Public Transport Networks using the same Portable Media
  • Smartcards will have migrated to a Secure Element on a Portable Object (Mobile Phone, PDA, USB device etc)
  • Individual IFM Transport Applications can co-reside in a multi-application environment
  • An EU-IFM Transport Application usable across many Networks
  • Payment processes are no longer a barrier to the use of Public Transport across EU

The NFC Offer for Transport

  • NFC offers a unique opportunity to engage travellers.
  • Minimum Specification and Composite Certification
  • Trusted Service Provision
  • Seamless links between Journey Planning, Ticket Selection and access to multiple Public Transport Networks across borders

Issues raised

  • Co-ordination between Pilots
  • Early Adoption to avoid wasteful expenditure
  • Migration of Legacy Schemes
  • Ensuring sufficient space available on media
  • Convergence with Payment developments in NFC and Mobile EMV / SEPA
  • Payment Currency and Settlement

Abbreviations and Acronyms

3DES Triple Data Encryption Standard Wikipedia
AES Advanced Encryption Standard Wikipedia
AFIMB Agence Française de l’Information Multimodale et de la Billettique
B2B Business To Business
B2C Business To Customer
CEN TC278 WG3 SG5 European Committee for Standardization, Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems, Working Group Public Transport, Sub Group Interoperable Fare
Chip Card see Smart Card
CNA Calypso Networks Association
CRM Customer Relationship Management
DES Data Encryption Standard Wikipedia
EBSF European Bus System of the Future
EC European Commission
EFM Electronic Fare Management
EPTO European Passenger Transport Operators (association)
ERP Enterprise Resource Planning Wikipedia
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
Europtima EURopean Open Platform for smart card Ticketing, payment and multiservices in Interoperable Mobility Applications
GP Global Platform
GSMA Groupe Speciale Mobile Association
IC Integrated Circuit Wikipedia
ICC Integrated Circuit Card, see Smart Card
ID Card Identity (Document) Card Wikipedia
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IFM Interoperable Fare Management
ISO International Organisation for Standardisation
ITS Intelligent Transport Systems
ITSO Government-backed, non-profit organisation which defines and develops UK-wide technical specification for Smart Ticketing
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
NDEF NFC Data Exchange Format, a NFC Forum standard
NFC Near Field Communication Wikipedia
OTI Over The Internet
OTI Open Ticketing Institute
PT Public Transport
RF Radio Frequency Wikipedia
RFID Radio Frequency Identification Wikipedia
RSA Rivest Shamir Adleman Algorithm Wikipedia
Smart Card any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits (IC) Wikipedia
ST Smart Ticketing
STA Smart Ticketing Alliance
USB Universal Serial Bus
TLS Transport Layer Security Wikipedia
TSM Trusted Service Manager Wikipedia
UIC International Union of Railways (Union Internationale des Chemins de fer)
UICC Universal Integrated Circuit Card Wikipedia
UITP International Association of Public Transport (Union Internationale des Transports Publics)
VDV Association of German Transport Companies (Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmer)
VDV-KA-KG new name: VDV eTicket Service GmbH & Co. KG (old name: VDV-Kernapplikations GmbH & Co. KG)

IFM Project deliverables

ifm-flyer-thumbAfter the IFM-Project finished, the consortium produced a double sided IFM Flyer with information for decision makers in different languages:

  • English Interoperable Fare Management – Downloading local applications on compatible media.
  • French Interopérabilité des Systèmes billettiques – Téléchargez des applications locales sur des supports compatibles.
  • German Interoperables Fahrgeldmanagement – Download lokaler Applikationen auf kompatible Medien.
  • Spanish Gestión de Tarifas Interoperables – Descargue aplicaciones locales en medios compatibles.

The following (professional) project Deliverables are still available:

  • D1.1 Collection of Information on Existing Trust Management Models (February 2009)
  • D1.2 Existing Trust Models and Comparison to Published Best Practice in Other Relevant Business Sectors (March 2009)
  • D1.3 Report on the follow-up workshop to explain and disseminate the agreed Common Methodology for preparing a Trust Management Model (September 2009)
  • D1.4 Report on the Common Requirements for a Secure Domain to support the Trust Management Model (March 2010)
  • D2.1 Functional survey of existing sets of privacy protection rules applicable to transport IFM applications by national institutions and regulations in different contractors European countries (March 2009)
  • D2.2 Consensus paper on privacy in transport IFM applications (December 2009)
  • D2.3 European handbook on rules and regulations for privacy protection in fare devices and back-offices (March 2010)
  • D3.1 State of the art on interoperable media and multi-application management (February 2009)
  • D3.2 Common requirements and recommendations on interoperable media and multi-application management (September 2009)
  • D3.3 Migration paths (February 2010)
  • D4.1 Inventory of functions, organisational models and economic issues of existing IFM Systems (March 2009)
  • D4.2 Report on the organisational structures and the differences of the existing IFM systems (March 2009)
  • D4.3 Report and recommendation to Cooperative Organisational Models (April 2010)
  • D5.2 Generic common architecture, interfaces and security principles Strategy Paper (June 2010)
  • D6.2 UITP IFM Forum annual report 2008 (March 2009)
  • D7.2 Road Map for the long-term development strategy – conceptual outline (September 2008)
  • D7.3 Road map for the long-term development strategy – final version (June 2010)

The original IFM Project website may still exist!

EC Vice President congratulates the Smart Ticketing Alliance

After the press release about the establishment of the Smart ticketing Alliance, UITP President Peter Hendy received a supportive letter from European Commission Vice President Siim Kallas.

“I would like to thank and congratulate you and the Smart Ticketing Alliance team for the key role you are playing to make transport ticketing across Europe simpler and easier for all passengers. The Alliances’ efforts, I am sure, will be pivotal in bringing the local transport component into our initiatives.”

Siim Kallas goes on to mention that this work complements well with their own work towards multi-modal journey planning and ticketing. He expects that the Alliance will help answer his two year old question of “Why can we not yet plan or book our journey through Europe – switching between several modes – in one go and online?”. Nevertheless, he sees barriers ahead, not in the least in ensuring the provision of up-to-date information from all modes of transport.

“Your recent initiative is however an important milestone. I wish you the best of fortune with the Alliance and continued strong cooperation with all stakeholders involved in this journey.”

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ITSO, European Standardisation and the Smart Ticketing Alliance

John Verity is Chief Advisor to ITSO Limited. John sits on the ISO/CEN Standardisation committees overseeing smartcards in transport and supports both the UITP and the European Commission as an expert on Smart Ticketing. He was co-ordinator of the European funded project to develop a roadmap towards Europe-wide interoperability for Smart Ticketing. Eurotransport, Volume 11, Issue 3, 2013, page 51-52. ITSO, European Standardisation and the Smart Ticketing Alliance

John Verity outlines the aims of a new alliance which aims to make it possible to travel on all forms of public transport throughout Europe using a single specification NFC- (Near Field
Communications) enabled smartphone.


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The importance of sharing knowledge and experience

Bas van Os has been involved in all phases of the OV-chipkaart project in the Netherlands over the past 12 years. Bas is currently responsible for the Open Ticketing Institute – set-up to promote innovation and knowledge-sharing between ‘sister schemes’ in public transport. Eurotransport, Volume 11, Issue 3, 2013, page 54-56. The importance of sharing knowledge and experience

Ticketing used to simply be a business function of public transport. Now it has become a business sector in itself…but not for long. What started as a modernisation of paper and magnetic tickets has now become part of a larger wave of technological innovation and social change. In countries with strong public transport offerings, e-Ticketing will be one of the enablers of the integration of the physical and virtual worlds in which people move, work, play and consume.

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Denmark – how a transport ticketing solution became a country-wide experience

Gregers Mogensen is Senior Advisor at Rejsekort A/S. Eurotransport, Volume 11, Issue 3, 2013, page 57. Denmark – how a transport ticketing solution became a country-wide experience

Rejsekort A/S – the public transport smartcard ticketing scheme provider for Denmark – is the leading operator of one of the world’s first country-wide transport ticketing solutions based on NXP’s MIFARE technology, covering all train services, metro networks and eventually all bus services across Denmark. This common automatic fare collection solution delivers the next level of customer ticketing experience.

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Smart Ticketing Alliance established for simpler and easier ticketing systems across Europe

The establishment of the Smart Ticketing Alliance (STA) was announced in an official UITP press release, 28 June 2013.

Following the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed in February 2012, a Smart Ticketing Alliance Charter has now been agreed by representatives of VDV KA (Germany), ITSO (United Kingdom), AFIMB (France) and Calypso Network Association (CNA), together with the International Association of Public Transport (UITP).


This is another major step forward in making transport ticketing across parts of Europe simpler and easier for passengers!

According to this Charter , the Alliance will be a platform for global cooperation to realise a coordinated approach to establishing Smart Ticketing interoperability for the public transport sector. The Charter includes cooperation on, and establishment of, a trust scheme for public transport that mirrors the Trust Schemes in the mobile phone industry and banking.

The February 2012 MoU agreement already committed the Alliance to cooperate based on the principles of Interoperable Fare Management (IFM) as set out in the EU-IFM Project funded by the European Commission (2008-2010) and the developments in contactless bankcards and NFC-enabled devices, particularly mobile phones.

The main goals of the Alliance are:

  • Cooperation between national and regional Smart Ticketing schemes to establish interoperable Smart Ticketing in Europe and elsewhere.
  • To develop, agree and publish the functional and technical requirements for smart ticketing interoperability.
  • Cooperation on the establishment of Trust Schemes, Specifications and Certification.
  • Cooperation with other European and International bodies to promote interoperability in Smart Ticketing.

The Founding Members of the Smart Ticketing Alliance invite other European stakeholders to join either as Full Members or Associated Members. Full membership is open to national ticketing schemes and regional groups of public transport operators and authorities cooperating in the electronic Smart Ticketing area. Others are welcomed as Associated Members.

A coordinating Secretariat will be established for the Smart Ticketing Alliance from within the UITP to provide a single contact point.

The actual press release can be downloaded here .

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Interoperable smart ticketing: an idea whose time has come

Martin Howell, worldwide communications director at Cubic Transportation Systems. Rail Technology Magazine, Feb/Mar 2013, page 28-29. Interoperable smart ticketing: an idea whose time has come

February 15 2012 was an important date in the development of interoperable contactless electronic “smart” ticketing, in which a single medium – a smart card or a mobile phone, for example – supports multiple types of tickets issued by different mass transit operators and valid on multiple modes of transport.

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e-Ticketing up close

Horst Stammler, Chairman Kontiki e.V. and managing director of VVS (transport authority of Stuttgart). Eurotransport, Volume 11, Issue 1, 2013, page 18-20. e-Ticketing up close

Given the pervasiveness of wireless networks, the explosion of mobile computing and communications devices of all forms, and the fundamental requirement for mobility, it is no wonder that multi-appJication, interoperability, man-machine-interaction or intermodal public transport is now at the core of so many strategic plans. Just as life without mobility would be unpleasant at best, public transportation companies and networks that are not optimising their customer and communication systems and services will be operating at a distinct disadvantage. Access to information resources on an any time/anywhere basis is today the key to productivity and an advantage no matter what the mission.

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