Sjef Janssen and Daniel Krings, VDV-Kernapplikations GmbH & Co. KG, part of VDV (the Association of German Transport Companies). Eurotransport, Volume 11, Issue 1, 2013, page 18-20. (((eTicket Germany is ready for the future
Public transport e-Ticketing in Germany started in the 1990’s like in so many other nations. In those days, interested German public transport operators and authorities could not fall back on a nationwide standard for Electronic Fare Management (EFM). The result found about 35 different smart card projects dotted all over Germany. Since then, there has been a dramatic change in passengers’ behaviour and requirements. customers want to buy their tickets quickly and simply and do not want to have to work their way through a complicated fare structure before they get the right ticket. So, in 2002, with funding from the German government, the Association of German Transport Companies (Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmen (VDV)) started developing a standard for e-Ticketing in public transport.